Tianeptine, sold under the brand names Stablon and Coaxil among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used mainly in the treatment of major depressive disorder, although it may also be used to treat anxiety, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. In terms of chemical structure, it is technically a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), but it has a very different drug profile than other TCAs, and is not usually grouped with them. Tianeptine at one time was considered a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Enhancer (SSRE)
Tianeptine has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects with a relative lack of sedative, anticholinergic, and cardiovascular side effects. It has been found to act as an atypical agonist of the μ-opioid receptor with clinically negligible effects on the δ- and κ-opioid receptors as do most tricylic antidepressants (TCA). μ-Opioid receptor agonists can induce mild euphoria, as does tianeptine at high doses, well above the normal therapeutic range, this however, would become detrimental to kidney function, cardiovascular system and neurological function.
Tianeptine was discovered and patented by the French Society of Medical Research in the 1960s. Currently, tianeptine is approved in France and manufactured and marketed by Laboratories Servier SA; it is also marketed in a number of other European countries under the trade name Coaxil as well as in Asia (including Singapore) and Latin America as Stablon and Tatinol but it is not available in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, or the United States.